Volume 8, Issue 2, December 2020, Page: 19-26
Visual Status of HIV and Non-HIV Infected Children in Relation to Anti-retroviral Drug Use and CD4+ Count in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria
Ajibola Barth Meraiyebu, Department of Physiology, Bingham University, Karu, Nigeria
Grace Inga Awilo, Department of Physiology, Bingham University, Karu, Nigeria
Aminyene Essien Meraiyebu, Limi Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria
Olanrewaju Olaiya, ProHealth International, Abuja, Nigeria
Received: Sep. 17, 2019;       Accepted: Oct. 22, 2019;       Published: Sep. 7, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ass.20200802.12      View  28      Downloads  12
In immunodeficiency diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, various body functions may be affected; visual function could be one of them. In a child, there are predictable adverse outcomes of the disease that bother physical and mental development. This study sought to investigate any potential compromise of visual function amongst HIV-infected children on anti-retroviral drugs known as Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) use by comparing the visual acuity, colour sense and field of vision in infected and non-infected children. One hundred (100) children aged between 5 to 15 years consisting of fifty (50) HIV infected and fifty (50) non-HIV infected were selected through random sampling. Visual acuity test (Snellen’s method), colour sense test (Ishihara chart method) and field of vision test (confrontational method) were carried out. Latest Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4+) count of the HIV infected subjects also was collected. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Student T Test and ANOVA. The mean visual acuity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected children was slightly low compared to the negative group (94.2±4.61and 96.4±12.58 respectively) but was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The mean of Ishihara colour sense test and that of the field of vision test also showed no statistically significant change between infected and non-infected children. Mean CD4+ count of the HIV infected children increased with age and use of anti-retroviral drugs. From 11 to 15 years, percentage defect in visual acuity increased amongst the HIV infected children, compared to the other ages but not statistically significant (p>0.05). It was concluded that visual acuity decreases slightly with improving CD4+ count and increasing age, for HIV positive children on anti-retroviral drugs. These parameters could be observed in subsequent years and subjects monitored for further investigation.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), Visual Acuity Test, Colour Sense Test, Field of Vision, Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4+), Anti-retroviral Drugs
To cite this article
Ajibola Barth Meraiyebu, Grace Inga Awilo, Aminyene Essien Meraiyebu, Olanrewaju Olaiya, Visual Status of HIV and Non-HIV Infected Children in Relation to Anti-retroviral Drug Use and CD4+ Count in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria, Advances in Surgical Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2020, pp. 19-26. doi: 10.11648/j.ass.20200802.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Center for Disease Control (CDC). (1981). Pneumocystis Pneumonia–Los Angeles. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 30: 250-252.
Azonobi I. R and Tebepah T. (2013). Visual status and causes of low vision and blindness among HIV/AIDS patients in Yenegoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. J. AIDS Clin. Res. 4: 206. doi: 10.4172/2155-6113.1000206.
Yonaba C, Kalmogho A, Sondo KA, Nacoulma M, Okengo K, Ouedraogo F, Zaoungrana C, Kabore A, Koueta F and Kam L (2016). Ocular manifestations among HIV infected children in Ougadougou, Burkina Faso (PDF). Open Journal of Pediatrics. Vol. 6, page 185-190. http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojped.
UNAIDS (2017). Global summary of the HIV epidemic 2016 (PDF). Retrieved on May 25, 2018 Vitale AT (2005) Global HIV and visual impairment. Cataract and refractive surgery today. Medline Plus.
Kestelyn P. G, Cunningham E. T Jr. (2001). HIV/AIDS and Blindness. Bull World Health Organ. 79: 208-213.
Akduman L, Feiner MA, Olk RJ, Kaplan HJ (1997) Macular Ischemia as a cause of decreased vision in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome Am J Ophthalmol 124: 699-702.
Vrabec TR (2004). Posterior segment manifestations of HIV/AIDS. Surv Ophthalmol, 49: 131-157.
Romano MR, Valldeparas X, Romano F (2006). Bilateral ischemic maculopathy in a patient with AIDS. Eur J Ophthalmol, 16: 761-763.
UNAIDS (2012). The quest for an HIV vaccine. Archived from the original on May 24th 2012.
Copeland R. A, Phillpotts A. B and Roy H. (2015). Ophthalmology-Medscape. https://emedicinemedscape.com/article/1216172-overview.
Marsden J, Stevens S and Ebri A (2014). How to measure distance visual acuity. Community Eye Health Journal, 27 (85): 16.
Matthew RM, Shugaba AI and Ogala WN (2006). Parents-adolescent communication and HIV/AIDS in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria. Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 6: 537, 545. doi: 10.3923/jms.2006.537.545Url.https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi.
Doyle T, Dunn DT, Ceccherini-Silberstein F, De Mendoza C, Garcia F, Smit E, Fearnhill E, Marcelin AG, Martinez-Picado J, Kaiser R, Geretti AM; CORONET Study Group. (2015). Integrase inhibitor (INI) genotypic resistance in treatment-naïve and raltegravir-experienced patients infected with diverse HIV-1 clades. DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkv243J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015 Nov; 70 (11): 3080-6. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkv243. Epub2015.
Benneth NJ (2018). HIV infection and AIDS. Medscape; drugs and diseases>infectious diseases. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211316-overview.
Pillay D, Genetti AM and Weiss RA (2007). Human immunodeficiency Viruses. In Zuckerman, Arie J et al. principles and practice of clinical virology (6th ed.) p. 905. ISBN 978-0-470-51799-4).
Haroun Isah, Elizabeth Isah, Ajibola Meraiyebu, (2017) Lung Function in HIV and Non-HIV Infected Children: FEV1 as a comparative tool. Medical Herald. Vol 4–2017 Pg 28–36.
Browse journals by subject